The most popular and useful machine learning method:

  • Artificial Neural Network
  • Deep Learning (artificial neural network with GPU support)

Other methods:

  • Support vector machine (put vectors to redirect result points multidimensionally)
  • Reinforcement machine learning (learn -> act in environment -> feedback -> learn)
  • Supervised machine learning (learning with expected results provided)
  • Unsupervised machine learning (learning without expected results provided)
  • Decision tree machine learning
  • Association rule machine learning
  • Clustering (assignment of observations into subsets)
  • Bayesian network (statistics-based network)
  • Presentation machine learning
  • Similarity and metric learning
  • Sparse dictionary learning
  • Genetic algorithms (related to evolutionary neural network?)
  • Rule-based machine learning

References:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Machine_learning#Approaches

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Outline_of_machine_learning#Machine_learning_methods

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