Each pixel on display is now stored in 32bit (RGBA). Present method to alter brightness of a pixel is to adjust RGB of the pixel towards black colour #000 or towards white colour #fff, but that’s not brightness, that’s changing colour i.e changing the wavelength  of the light wave.

On those software with capability of mixing multiple layers of images like Photoshop, browsers, the final pixel is mixed from multiple RGBA pixels. The final pixel is then rendered on 32-bit display.

However, the alpha byte of a pixel on display is presently defined as:

  • Zero alpha: Black colour
  • One alpha: The true colour of the colour

This means the brightness of pixels on physical display can be adjusted to dark but it can’t be adjusted to bright (BRIGHT, not white). There are 2 matters of vision: the wavelength (colour) and the density (number of photons or brightness). Certain wavelength can be be achieved by mixing R-G-B, but the alpha byte (A, density) must be changed to the following definition for brightness can be adjusted in both ways (to dark, to bright):

  • Zero alpha: Black colour
  • Half alpha: The true colour of the colour
  • One alpha: The maximum number of photons with the same wavelength can be emitted from the physical display (usually the max level at which human eyes still feel pleasant)

With this new definition, all alpha bytes in existing images must be divided by 2 to keep these images seen as normal.

Brightness scale:

Zero brightness      True colour          Max brightness       PL
A=0                  A=0.5                A=1

PL (photon limit): The limit at which number of photons can't be
more in a unit block of space. This limit is the limit of nature
in this universe.

Old days:

  • CRT: Gray-scale cathode ray tube
  • CRT: Brown-scale cathode ray tube

Present days (2017):

  • LCD: Liquid crystal display
  • LED: Light emitting diode
  • OLED: Organic light emitting diode
  • Stereoscopic display
  • VR: Virtual reality display
  • AR: Augmented reality goggles
  • On-water-particle projection 2D display
  • On-water-particle projection 3D display


  • 3D projection display on water particles existing in the air
  • Ion laser projection on certain particles in the air


  • Mode 13h: 320 × 200
  • VGA: 640 × 480
  • SVGA: 800 × 600
  • XGA: 1024 × 768
  • HD: 1280 × 720
  • Full HD: 1920 × 1080
  • 2K: 2048 × 1152
  • 4K: 4096 × 2304
  • 8K: 8192 × 2608

Bits per pixel:

  • 4-bit displays (16 colours)
  • 8-bit displays (256 colours)
  • 16-bit displays (hi-colour)
  • 24-bit displays (RGB, no alpha)
  • 32-bit displays (RGB-A)